The Civil War of 49ndash45 BCE

The history of the civil war led by Julius Caesar

In 50 BC, the Senate (driven by Pompey) requested Caesar to disband his military and come back to Rome since his term as a senator had finished. Caesar figured that there would be accusations against him if he entered Rome without the insusceptibility delighted in by a justice. Pompey blamed Caesar for rebellion and conspiracy. Caesar crossed the Rubicon on January 10, 49 BC, stream (the outskirts limit of Italy) with just a solitary army, the Legio XIII Gemina, and sparked a civil war. Although Pompey continued to ridicule Caesar, who just had his Thirteenth Legion with him, didn't mean to battle. Caesar sought after Pompey, planning to catch Pompey before his armies could escape.

Pompey figured out how to escape before Caesar could catch him. Heading for Spain, Caesar left Italy heavily influenced by Mark Antony. Following an astounding 27-day course walk, Caesar crushed Pompey's lieutenants, at that point returned east, to challenge Pompey in Illyria, where, on July 10, 48 BC, in the battle of Dyrrhachium, Caesar scarcely kept away from disastrous destruction. In an exceedingly short commitment soon after that, he definitively defeated Pompey at Pharsalus in Greece on August 9, 48 BC.

Cleopatra and Caesar

Caesar giving Cleopatra the throne of Egypt-Pietro de Cortone-MBA

This mid-first century-BC Roman divider painting in Pompeii, Italy, indicating Venus holding a cupid is doubtlessly a portrayal of Cleopatra VII of Ptolemaic Egypt as Venus Genetrix, with her child Caesarion as the cupid, comparable in appearance to the now lost statue of Cleopatra raised by Julius Caesar in the Temple of Venus Genetrix (inside the Forum of Caesar). The proprietor of the House of Marcus Fabius Rufus at Pompeii walled off the life with this canvas, in all likelihood in prompt response to the execution of Caesarion on requests of Augustus in 30 BC, when original delineations of Caesarion was considered a touchy issue for the decision regime.

In Rome, Caesar was delegated dictator, with Mark Antony as his Master of the Horse (second in order); Caesar directed his own political decision to a subsequent consulship and afterward, following 11 days, surrendered this dictatorship. Caesar, at that point, sought after Pompey to Egypt, showing up not long after the homicide of the general. There, Caesar was given Pompey's cut off head and seal-ring, getting these with tears.

Caesar and the Egyptian civil war

Caesar, at that point, got associated with an Egyptian civil war between the child pharaoh and his sister, spouse, and co-official sovereign, Cleopatra. Maybe because of the pharaoh's job in Pompey's homicide, Caesar agreed with Cleopatra. Caesar withstood the Siege of Alexandria, and later he crushed the pharaoh's powers at the Battle of the Nile in 47 BC and introduced Cleopatra as ruler. Caesar and Cleopatra commended their triumph with a triumphal parade on the Nile in the spring of 47 BC.



The conspiration to murder Julius Caesar On March 15 (the Ides of March) of 44 BC, Caesar expected to show up at a meeting of the Senate. A few Senators had contrived to kill Caesar. Mark Antony, heard of the plot the previous night from an alarmed hero named Servilius Casca, in fear of the worst, went to take Caesar off. The plotters foresaw this and, knew that Antony would go to Caesar's guide, they masterminded Trebonius to catch him as he moved toward the porch of the Theater of Pompey. They confined him outside (Plutarch, in any case, allots this activity of postponing Antony to Brutus Albinus). At the point when he heard the upheaval from the Senate chamber, Antony fled. Actions of Caesar’s conspirators Casca, at the same time, created his blade and made a looking push at the tyrant's neck. Caesar pivoted rapidly and got Casca by the arm. Inside minutes, the whole gathering, including Brutus, was striking out at him. Caesar endeavored to escape, blinded by blood, he stumbled and fell; the men kept stabbing him as he lay exposed on the lower steps of the porch. As per Eutropius, around 60 men participated in his assassination by stabbing him 23 times. As indicated by Suetonius, a doctor later settled that just one injury, the second one to his chest, had been lethal. The dictator's final words are not known with assurance and are a challenging subject among researchers and students of history the same. Reports have it that Caesar's last words were the Greek expression "καὶ &